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What Is Functional Programming Paradigm?

Michael Morales  -  January 9, 2022  -  , ,  

Programming under the functional paradigm aims to bind everything in a pure mathematical functions manner. As the name implies, it's a declarative programming approach. Unlike an imperative style, which focuses on "how to solve," this approach focuses on "what to solve." Instead than using statements, it makes use of expressions. In contrast to the evaluation of expressions, statements are executed in order to assign variables. This functionality has certain unique characteristics.

Characteristics of Functional Programming

Focusing on results rather than the process is what functional programming is all about.

  • The focus here is on the calculation itself.
  • Data cannot be changed.
  • Decompose an issue into "functions" in functional programming
  • To carry out the computation, it relies on mathematical functions, which make use of conditional expressions and recursion.
  • Unlike loop statements and conditional expressions such as If-Else statements, it does not permit iteration.

History of Functional programming

The foundation for Functional Programming is Lambda Calculus. As a result of functional application, definition and recursion it was created in the 1930s. The functional programming language LISP was the first to be developed. McCarthy designed it in 1960. University of Edinburgh academics established the ML in the 1970s (Meta Language). In the early 80’s Hope language included algebraic data types for recursion and equational reasoning. Scala, an innovative functional language, was introduced in 2004.

Benefits of Functional Programming

The following are some of the benefits of functional programming:

  1. Code that is free of errors As a result of functional programming's lack of support for states, we can write error-free code.
  2. Functional programming languages have NO mutable state, therefore state changes are not an issue in efficient parallel programming. Parallel "instructions" can be created by programming "Functions" to function in tandem. These kind of programmes make it simple to reuse and test them.
  1. Functional programmes are made up of independent modules that may be run simultaneously, resulting in greater efficiency. To put it another way, they're more efficient.
  1. Nested functions are supported by functional programming.
  1. The Lazy Functional Constructs like Lazy Lists, Lazy Maps, etc. are supported by functional programming.

Applications of Functional Programming

It is not uncommon for functional programming languages to be utilised in academic settings rather than in the business sector. In spite of this, functional programming languages such as Clojure and Erlang are frequently employed in the development of commercial and industrial software applications. WhatsApp uses Erlang, a functional programming language, to manage data belonging to more than 1.5 billion individuals with little over 100 staff. Haskell is another notable example of functional programming. Facebook employs it as part of its anti-spam defences. Programming languages like JavaScript, one of the most extensively used, are dynamically typed functional languages.

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